Aldosterone is the chief mineralocorticoid that is produced in the adrenal cortex. Its function is to increase sodium levels in the blood. It does so primarily by increasing the retention of sodium through the epithelial sodium channel (along with excretion of potassium) in the kidneys.
Aldosterone is regulated by the renin-angiotensin system. When the blood pressure is low, blood flow to the kidneys is less and this causes a reduced GFR. Less sodium filtered into the renal tubules is sensed by special cells in the distal convoluted tubules of the nephrons and this activates the renin-angiotensin system. The main effects are increased release of aldosterone and sodium retention to restore blood volume.
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