Motor neuron diseases (MND) are characterized by degeneration of the upper and lower motor neurons. They include:
Amyotrophic sclerosis (ALS) is the most common of these MNDs with a worldwide incidence of 2/100,000 people per year. ALS starts with non-specific symptoms such as cramps and muscle weakness, dysphagia (difficulty to swallow) and dysarthria (difficulty to move). These then progress to involve the entire body so the patient loses the ability to move and communicate completely. Unfortunately, there is no cure for ALS, and the majority of patients succumb to the disease within 3 to 5 years after the onset of symptoms. Although low, familial cases of the disease occur due to inherited mutations in certain genes (5 to 10% of ALS cases). The rest are sporadic and the exact cause is still not known despite intensive research.
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determination in CSF and serum
highly sensitive determination
in serum and plasma
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