Products - Autoimmune - Endocrinology - Diabetes


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Disease information

Diabetes is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases across the globe. Type 1, also called insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), is the result of T-cell mediated destruction of beta cells in the pancreas in genetically predisposed individuals. Moreover, antibodies against various islet cells are formed very early during the course of the disease. These include antibodies against:

  • Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)
  • Tyrosine phosphatase (IA2)
  • Zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8)

The detection of these antibodies also holds great significance in predicting diseases risks in first-degree relatives.

Diagnostic Guidelines

Diagnostics are based upon detection of antibodies against islet cells (ICA) using indirect immunofluorescence. 80 to 90% of the patients with new onset diabetes are positive for such antibodies. As stated earlier, the potential antigens are GAD, IA2 and ZnT8.

  • The prevalence of anti-GAD antibodies in patients of IDDM is 60 to 80 percent.
  • The prevalence of anti-IA2 antibodies among IDDM patients is 50 to 80% and they are usually associated with younger patients.
  • Anti-insulin antibodies also show age dependency. In patients under age five, the prevalence is over 90 percent. These paediatric antibodies can currently be detected with sufficient sensitivity using only RIA.

Antibodies against ZnT8 serve as a good alternative to anti-insulin antibodies. They too are highly popular among the pediatric age group with prevalence stacking at around 70 percent.

Autoantibodies against various antigens in IDDM appear before the first clinical symptoms. Thus, they are considered as markers of pre-diagnostic phase. For an accurate diagnosis, different tests are run in parallel to achieve an overall increased sensitivity and specificity.

Diabetes products

The individual product regulatory statements may vary, please refer to the instructions for use for more information.

wdt_ID Method Parameter Substrate Species/ Antigen
555 IFA islet cells antibodies (PM) EUROPattern
pancreas islets
1 BIOCHIP per field:
556 IFA pancreas islets pancreas monkey
557 IFA pancreas islets pancreas islets
(three 1 x 1 mm BIOCHIPs
per field)
558 IFA pancreas islets, GAD
brain: grey and white matter,
Purkinje cell cytoplasm (Yo),
Hu and Ri antigen
(2 BIOCHIPs per field)
559 IFA antibodies against pancreas islets
(islet cell ab control)
560 IFA antibodies against pancreas islets
control with JDF units
561 IFA antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase
(GAD ab control)
562 ELISA GAD antigen-coated
microplate wells
glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65)
563 ELISA GAD/IA2 Pool antigen-coated
microplate wells
microplate wells
glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65)/
tyrosine phosphatase
564 IFA glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65 kDa
(stiff-person syndrome)
transfected cells
control transfection
(2 BIOCHIPs per field)
EU 90
EU 90
565 ELISA IA2 antigen-coated
microplate wells
tyrosine phosphatase
566 RIA insulin
labelled antigen synthetic product,
567 ELISA zinc transporter 8 antigen-coated
microplate wells
Method Parameter Substrate Species/ Antigen
Contact our Autoimmune Product Team for further details and information

Product Catalog

Download our full EUROIMMUN US 2022 Product Catalog (PDF 12MB)

Download EUROIMMUN US 2022 Product Catalog (PDF)


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