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Autoimmune gastritis/ pernicious anaemia

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Disease information

Autoimmune gastritis (AIG) is a disease in which autoantibodies attack the gastric mucosa, mainly the parietal cells in the fundus and body region of the stomach. For a quick review, the parietal cells produce hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor, both highly crucial to gastric functions and heme synthesis. Destruction of parietal cells leads to achlorhydria and atrophy of the stomach mucosa. Moreover, a deficit in the intrinsic factor leads to pernicious anemia that develops over years during the course of the disease. Symptoms of pernicious anemia include:

  • Anemia and fatigue
  • Drowsiness and tachycardia

Some other abnormalities you might stumble upon during the disease course include:

  • Malabsorption and diarrhea
  • Anorexia
  • Glossitis
  • Icterus and neurological abnormalities

Diagnostic Guidelines

Diagnosis for Autoimmune gastritis (AIG) depends upon high circulating levels of antibodies against the parietal cell antigens and those directed against intrinsic factor (IF). Intrinsic factor aids in the absorption of vitamin B12 in the ileum. Two types of antibodies have been recognized:

  • IFA type 1 that reacts with vitamin B12 binding site
  • Typ2 that reacts with the receptor cells of the ileum

IFAs are very specific for AIG. They are positive for 40 to 80 percent of the patients with pernicious anemia.

The next big thing is to look for antibodies against parietal cell antigens (PCA). They are both of IgG and IgA types. Seen in almost all patients of chronic atrophic , PCAs are also high diagnostic accuracy for pernicious anemia (PA) accounting for 80 to 90 percent of the cases. However, during the course of the disease, the prevalence decreases due to destruction of the parietal cells. One should keep in mind that these antibodies are also seen in patients with endocrinopathies and healthy blood donors.

Antibodies against PCA can be detected by immunofluorescence assays or by ELISA. IFA can be detected by intrinsic factor biochips or ELISA. We also offer blot techniques to differentiate the diagnosis from other diseases such as celiac or Crohn’s disease.

Autoimmune gastritis/ pernicious anaemia products

The individual product regulatory statements may vary, please refer to the instructions for use for more information.

wdt_ID Method Parameter Substrate Species/ Antigen
535 IFA Anti-Parietal cells (SM) IFA EUROPattern stomach monkey
536 IFA parietal cells
stomach monkey
537 EUROLINE Autoimmune Gastrointestinal Diseases IgA
(tissue transglutaminase (endomysium), gliadin-analogue
fusion peptide (GAF-3X), mannan (ASCA))
538 EUROLINE Autoimmune Gastrointestinal Diseases IgG
(tissue transglutaminase (endomysium),
gliadin-analogue fusion peptide (GAF-3X),
parietal cell antigen (PCA) separately
Intrinsic factor, mannan (ASCA))
539 IFA parietal cells (PCA)
mitochondria (AMA)
(2 BIOCHIPs per field)
540 IFA antibodies against parietal cells
(PCA control)
541 ELISA parietal cells
microplate wells
native, H+/K+ ATPase,
porcine gastric mucosa
542 ELISA ATP4B antigen-coated
microplate wells
543 IFA intrinsic factor intrinsic factor BIOCHIPs
544 ELISA intrinsic factor antigen-coated
microplate wells
native, porcine
gastric mucosa
parietal cells (PCA)
intrinsic factor
2 BIOCHIPs per field:
intrinsic factor BIOCHIPs
546 IFA antibodies against parietal cells + intrinsic factor
(PCA + intrinsic factor ab control)
Method Parameter Substrate Species/ Antigen
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