Products - Autoimmune - Neurology - Other diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system

Other diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system

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Stiff-person syndrome

Stiff person syndrome (SPS) is a disease that is characterized by progressive muscle stiffness typically in the trunk and extremities along with both spontaneous and triggered muscle spasms. Quite interestingly, around 80% of the patients with stiff person syndrome develop antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (anti-GAD antibodies). Moreover, about 5 percent of the cases are in actual paraneoplastic syndromes associated with antibodies amphiphysin.

Diseases with demyelination

Demyelinating diseases are characterized by destruction of the myelin sheath of nerve fibers which results in impairment of nerve signal transmission along nerve fibers and across synapses. The disease mostly affects regions in the brain and spinal cord and gives rise to both sensory and motor symptoms.

Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD): These particularly affect the optic nerve and involve antibodies directed against a water channel protein in the central nervous system called aquaporin-4 (AQP-4). Other important antibodies include those against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). Their presence is also indicative of the disease as around 20 percent of the cases are negative for anti-AQP4 but positive for anti-MOG. Also, detection of these antibodies helps in early disease diagnosis of NMOSD and separating it from multiple sclerosis, which is by far the most important differential.

Autoimmune neuropathies

Peripheral nervous system and its cells are equally vulnerable to autoagression and immune mediated damage to both neurons and glial cells. The result is a variety of motor and sensory manifestations as well as dystonias. In peripheral nervous system, the potential targets for these antibodies are the glycoproteins and glycolipids in the cell membranes of neurons and glial cells. Their presence is highly indicative of a disease process. More so, specific antibodies can also predict specific forms of peripheral neuropathies. For example, antibodies against gangliosides are diagnostic markers for Guillain Barré syndrome and its various types. Similarly, IgM antibodies against myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) are indicative of demyelinating polyneuropathy with monoclonal IgM gammopathy.

Myasthenia syndrome

Myasthenia syndrome or myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease characterized by the development of antibodies against the post-synaptic acetylcholine receptors at neuromuscular junctions. Destruction of these receptors reduces signal transduction across the junction resulting in muscle weakness. Antibodies against nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) are detected in at least 85 to 90% of the patients with generalized myasthenia gravis. Additionally, some protein antigens of striated muscles also serve as targets for antibodies for example titin. Such type of associations are related to underlying neoplasms (most commonly thymomas which are seen in fifteen percent of all myasthenia cases). Presence of an associated tumor dictates a highly aggressive disease course. Nevertheless, early diagnostic assays and detection of specific antibodies followed by early therapeutic interventions have shown good results and an overall good disease prognosis.

Other diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system products

The individual product regulatory statements may vary, please refer to the instructions for use for more information.

wdt_ID Method Parameter Substrate Species/ Antigen
682 IFA glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65 kDa
(stiff-person syndrome)
transfected cells
control transfection
(2 BIOCHIPs per field)
EU 90
EU 90
683 IFA brain: grey and white matter,
Purkinje cell cytoplasm (Yo),
Hu and Ri antigen
CV2, Ma, amphiphysin
cerebellum monkey
684 IFA Neurology Mosaic 1 EUROPattern
Yo, Hu, Ri, CV2, Ma, amphiphysin
medullated nerves
non-medullated nerves
3 BIOCHIPs per field:
cerebellum
nerves
intestinal tissue
monkey
monkey
monkey
685 IFA Neurology Mosaic 1
Yo, Hu, Ri, CV2, Ma, amphiphysin
medullated nerves
non-medullated nerves
3 BIOCHIPs per field:
cerebellum
nerves
intestinal tissue
monkey
monkey
monkey
686 IFA Neurology Mosaic14
cerebellum antigens
non-medullated nerves
2 BIOCHIPs per field:
cerebellum
non-medullated nerves
monkey
monkey
687 IFA Yo, Hu, Ri, CV2, Ma, amphiphysin
medullated nerves
non-medullated nerves
cell nuclei (ANA)
cerebellum
nerves
intestinal tissue
HEp-2 cells
(4 BIOCHIPs per field)
monkey
monkey
monkey
human
688 IFA Neurology Mosaic 17
Yo, Hu, Ri, CV2, Ma, amphiphysin, NMO
cerebrum antigens, NMO
NMO, optic nerve antigens
aquaporin-4
5 BIOCHIPs per field
cerebellum
cerebrum
optic nerve
transfected cells
control transfection
monkey
monkey
monkey
EU 90
EU 90
689 IFA Neurology Mosaic 2
Yo, Hu, Ri, CV2, Ma, amphiphysin
medullated nerves
2 BIOCHIPs per field:
cerebellum
nerves
monkey
monkey
690 IFA Neurology Mosaic 8 EUROPattern
Yo, Hu, Ri, CV2, Ma, amphiphysin
medullated nerves
non-medullated nerves
pancreas islets
4 BIOCHIPs per field:
cerebellum
nerves
intestinal tissue
pancreas
monkey
monkey
monkey
monkey
691 IFA Neurology Mosaic 8
Yo, Hu, Ri, CV2, Ma, amphiphysin
medullated nerves
non-medullated nerves
pancreas islets
4 BIOCHIPs per field
cerebellum
nerves
intestinal tissue
pancreas
monkey
monkey
monkey
monkey
692 IFA antibodies against Delta and Notch-like epidermal growth factor-related receptor
(DNER CBA control)
693 IFA medullated nerves nerves monkey
694 IFA antibodies against myelin
695 IFA antibodies against myelin-associated
glycoprotein (MAG ab control)
696 IFA antibodies against aquaporin-4
(neuromyelitis optica control)
697 IFA NMOSD Screen 1 EUROPattern
aquaporin-4 (AQP-4)
Myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)
3 BIOCHIPs per field:
transfected cells
transfected cells
control transfection
EU 90
EU 90
EU 90
698 IFA NMOSD Screen 1
aquaporin-4 (AQP-4)
Myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)
3 BIOCHIPs per field:
transfected cells
transfected cells
control transfection
EU 90
EU 90
EU 90
699 IFA aquaporin-4 transfected cells
control transfection
(2 BIOCHIPs per field)
EU 90
EU 90
700 IFA aquaporin-4 EUROPattern transfected cells
control transfection
(2 BIOCHIPs per field)
EU 90
EU 90
701 EUROLINE Gangliosides Profile 1
(GM1, GD1b, GQ1b separately)
EUROLINE
702 EUROLINE Gangliosides Profile 2
(GM1, GM2, GM3, GD1a, GD1b, GT1b, GQ1b separately)
EUROLINE
703 IFA antibodies against myelin oligodendrocytes glycoprotein
(MOG CBA control)
704 IFA Myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) transfected cells
control transfection
(2 BIOCHIPs per field)
EU 90
EU 90
705 IFA Myelin-Oligodendrocyte-Glycoprotein (MOG)
EUROPattern
transfected cells
control transfection
EU 90
EU 90
706 ELISA acetylcholine receptor antigen-coated
microplate wells
recombinant,
expression in HEK cells
Method Parameter Substrate Species/ Antigen
Contact our Autoimmune Product Team for further details and information

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